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London & North Western Railway Society
Glossary for the LNWR Society

Glossary Results for prefix "sa"

Saddle Tank A steam locomotive which carries its water in tanks ‘draped’ over the boiler barrelExplain 'Boiler' like a saddle.  
Safety Valve Fitted to boilersExplain 'Boiler' to prevent the working pressure being exceeded.  
Saloon A carriage, often (but not always) built with an open plan arrangement and having a specialised use such as dining saloonsExplain 'Dining Saloon', family saloonsExplain 'Family Saloon', day saloons, club saloons, invalid saloons and picnic saloons. The key feature is that usage of these involved the payment of supplementary fares or charges. The connotation is “up-market” and such carriages were originally intended for first class passengers, or even Royalty. The first open Sleeping Saloons were “shared” by several passengers, but later they were made with individual compartments.  
Salter Safety-Valve A boiler safety-valveExplain 'Safety Valve' where the steam outlet caps are loaded down through long sprung levers.  
Saltley, Birmingham Location of the carriage construction and repair works of the London and Birmingham RailwayExplain 'London & Birmingham Railway (LBR)' (and LNWR) from 1838 to 1867. Thereafter this work was undertaken at WolvertonExplain 'Wolverton'. The Saltley premises were taken over by the private carriage building firm of Joseph Wright and Sons. This ultimately became Metropolitan Cammell, which continued to build railway rolling stock until recently.  
Samson Class 2-4-0 Locomotive Class A class of 90 2-4-0 engines with 6ft 0in driving wheels built for secondary duties under RamsbottomExplain 'Ramsbottom, John (1814—1897)' and WebbExplain 'Webb, Francis William (1836—1906)' from 1863 to 1879. Reputedly the first passenger engines with coupled wheelsExplain 'Coupled Wheels'. It has the usual Ramsbottom features: the fancy chimneyExplain 'Chimney' top, safety valvesExplain 'Safety Valve', horizontal smoke boxExplain 'Smoke Box' door, slotted splashersExplain 'Splasher', no brakes on the engine and no cab. The coupling rodsExplain 'Coupling Rods' are of the early Ramsbottom type, with forked ends having wedge adjustment and cotteredExplain 'Cottered Fitting' fastenings. 80 replaced by ‘Small Jumbos’Explain 'Small Jumbo 2-4-0 Locomotive Class' in 1890’s, the others continuing for 20 years in engineer department use.  
Sand Box A box that held dry sand that was fed through a Sand PipeExplain 'Sand Pipe' to the track, just in front of the driving wheels, to increase the grip. Some locomotives had Sand Pipes behind the driving wheels for when running in reverse.  
Sand Pipe A tube, most commonly found on locomotives, through which sand could be applied to the rail in front of a driven wheel to increase grip, particularly in bad weather. The sand could be fed through the tube by various means, such as gravity from a hopper, or blown under pressure using steam.  
Sanding A processing of applying sand just in front of the Driving wheels to increase the adhesion between wheel and track.  
Saturated Steam Steam which has not been superheatedExplain 'Super Heated Steam'. Also known as 'wet steam'.  
Saxby, John (1821—1913) Inventor of interlockingExplain 'Interlocking' pointsExplain 'Points' and signalling, patented 1856 and first used on the LBSCRExplain 'London, Brighton & South Coast Railway (LBSCR)'. His company, Saxby and Farmer, provided many of the earliest signal boxesExplain 'Signal Box' on the LNWR, some of which are still in use.  
Scenery Truck A long bogie truck, either an open or covered truck designed for end-loading, normally NPCSExplain 'Non-Passenger Coaching Stock (NPCS)' rated and intended for the conveyance of theatrical scenery. At one time moving touring theatre companies and their effects from one place to the next (usually on Sundays and Wednesdays) was an important source of rail traffic.  
Scotch Block (1) A wedge of metal, which can be located by mechanical linkages, on top of a running rail at the exit to a goods yard or similar location. The device serves the same purpose as catch pointsExplain 'Catch Points'.  
Scotch Block (2) A block of material which is placed on a rail near the wheel of a stationary vehicle to prevent the vehicle from accidentally moving.  
Scott, Samuel Strong (1858—1934) Sammy Scott started work as a booking clerk at stations in the Stockport area, 1872. Later as a main-line GuardExplain 'Guard' on the LNWR circa 1920 he gathered information on early locomotives, becoming a leading authority on the subject.  
Scottish Central Railway (SCR) Authorised from Greenhill (Caledonian Railway) to Perth (Dundee & Perth Railway and Scottish Midland Railway) to provide a through link between Euston and Aberdeen, the SCR absorbed the Dundee, Perth and Aberdeen Railway in 1863, this concern having been formed from an amalgamation of the Dundee & Perth Railway and the Dundee & Newtile Railway. The SCR was itself absorbed into the Caledonian Railway in 1865.  
Screw Coupling This is a Three-linkExplain 'Three Link Coupling' coupling with the central link replaced by a threaded rod that screws into the outer links. This rod was a handle to assist turning, which draws he two outer links closer together, shortening the coupling and effect a tight attachment.  
Screw Propeller Trolley A low wagon to carry Ships Propellers. See TrolleyExplain 'Trolley'.  
Screw Reverse Reversing gearExplain 'Reversing Gear' controlled by a wheel in the cab attached to a screw thread, as distinct from a lever-operated reverseExplain 'Lever Reverse'. Screw reverse gave greater control and more mechanical advantage, but was slower to operate, so generally used on locomotives which spent long periods travelling in one direction i.e. express engines.  
Sheffield, Ashton & Manchester Railway (SAMR) Later became the Manchester Sheffield & Lincolnshire RailwayExplain 'Manchester Sheffield & Lincolnshire Railway (MSLR)' which in turn became the Great Central Railway. Not part of LNWR.