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London & North Western Railway Society
Glossary for the LNWR Society

Glossary Results for prefix "pr"

‘Practice & Performance’ A term normally used to describe amateur enthusiasts who took an interest in railway locomotive performance and recorded train times, weights etc, from which they formed opinions of the merits of different designs of locomotive. They did not normally have access to official information regarding coal and water consumption, exact train weights, valve gear settings etc.  
Precedent 2-4-0 Locomotive Class The ‘Precedents’ were the 6ft 6in counterparts of the 5ft 6in ‘Precursors’Explain 'Precursor 2-4-0 Locomotive Class (1)' and were introduced in December 1874. They had 140 psiExplain 'PSI (Pounds per Square Inch)' BoilersExplain 'Boiler' and 7/8in framesExplain 'Frame', a cab, Webb’s closed safety valvesExplain 'Safety Valve' and no brakes on the engine.  
Precursor 2-4-0 Locomotive Class (1) A series of 2-4-0’s built by F.W. WebbExplain 'Webb, Francis William (1836—1906)' from 1874 with 5ft 6in driving wheelsExplain 'Drive Wheel' thought to be better suited to hill climbing on the Crewe-Carlisle line; where as the ‘Precedents’Explain 'Precedent 2-4-0 Locomotive Class' although similar in many other aspects had 6ft 6in wheels. Precursor had the usual Webb features, plain chimney top, a cab, they also had open Ramsbottom safety Valves, horizontal smoke box door, hook-type front coupling and no brakes on the engine. They were all replaced by 2-4-2 5ft 6in tank enginesExplain 'Tank Locomotive' from 1890.  
Precursor 4-4-0 Locomotive Class (2) A class of 130 very successful 4-4-0 express passengerExplain 'Express Passenger' engines built by George WhaleExplain 'Whale, George (1842—1910)' from 1904. After the value of superheatingExplain 'Super Heated Steam' was proved many of the class received superheater boilers with extended smoke boxesExplain 'Smoke Box' and their performance was then indistinguishable from the “George the Fifths”Explain 'George the Fifth 4-4-0 Locomotive Class'; they retained separate splashersExplain 'Splasher' over the driving wheels and so were different in appearance. They were the first of Whale’s larger engines and the last one was not scrapped until 1949.  
Precursor Tank Locomotive Class A 4-4-2 tank locomotiveExplain 'Tank Locomotive' developed from Whale’sExplain 'Whale, George (1842—1910)'Precursor Explain 'Precursor 4-4-0 Locomotive Class (2)' passenger engines.  
The Premier Line The LNWR’s description of itself.  
Premium Apprentice Premium Apprentices paid about £200 to the company in return for a five-year apprenticeship, during which they were paid normal trade apprentice rates. They were not guaranteed a job at the end of their term, though many Crewe Premium Apprentices went on to head most of Britain’s railways at one time or another, and other important industrial concerns. About thirty new Premiums were admitted each year, so it was a select club, indeed the ‘Past and Present Crewe Association’ still meets to this day. Some of the better-known Crewe apprentices include Worsdell, Aspinall, Ivatt, Hoy, Hughes, Gresley and Rolls.  
Preston & Wigan Railway Incorporated 1831, but before completion was amalgamated in 1834 with the already-built Wigan Branch RailwayExplain 'Wigan Branch Railway' as the North Union RailwayExplain 'North Union Railway'. The 15 mile P&W section was opened in 1838 and now forms part of the West Coast main lineExplain 'West Coast Main Line'.  
Prince of Wales 4-6-0 Locomotive Class A class of 4-6-0 locomotives built by Bowen CookeExplain 'Bowen Cooke, Charles J (1859—1920)' from 1911 – the superheatedExplain 'Super Heated Steam' version of the WhaleExplain 'Whale, George (1842—1910)' “Experiment” classExplain 'Experiment 4-6-0 Locomotive Class (2)' (as “George the Fifth”Explain 'George the Fifth 4-4-0 Locomotive Class' was of the “Precursor”Explain 'Precursor 4-4-0 Locomotive Class (2)' class) and the main work-horse of LNWR express passengerExplain 'Express Passenger' services from its introduction. During the First World War, some were built by outside companies and not at Crewe.  
Private Owner Wagon Many industrial concerns whose products were carried by rail had wagonsExplain 'Wagon' (and vansExplain 'Van') built specifically for their use, turned out in their own livery, dedicated to their traffic and returned to the owner after unloading. The majority of these “private owner wagons” were open coal or mineral wagons, though others were more specialised, such as covered wagons salt and vans for sausages. During the Second World War all private owner wagons were declared to be “common user”Explain 'Common User Wagon'.  
Problem 2-2-2 Locomotive Class Designed by John RamsbottomExplain 'Ramsbottom, John (1814—1897)' and introduced in 1859, the first of the ‘7ft 6in Single’ class was No.184 Problem. This name came from a withdrawn Trevithick 2-4-0 goods engine and originally had a mathematical connotation, another of the class being Theorem. They incorporated all the usual Ramsbottom features: his design of chimney top, safety valvesExplain 'Safety Valve' and screw reverserExplain 'Screw Reverse', horizontal smoke boxExplain 'Smoke Box' door, no cab, no brakes on the engine and no top lamp socket. The class is also known by one of the famous members of the class ‘Lady of the Lake’Explain 'Lady of the Lake 2-2-2 Locomotive Class' as it was awarded a bronze medal at the International Exhibition in 1862  
PSI (Pounds per Square Inch) Imperial measurement of pressure. Locomotive boiler pressure depends on the class of locomotive, but ranges from 80 to 220 psi. Higher pressure is more efficient, but requires stronger engineering!  
Public Record Office The Public Record Office is the national archive of England, Wales and the United Kingdom. It brings together and preserves the records, and is located at Kew.  
Pug Locomotive Class A common term in Scotland for a small shuntingExplain 'Shunting' locomotive – typically an 0-4-0 tank. ‘Pug’ was a dialect word meaning ‘monkey’.  
Pull Rod A rod which is pulled from one end, to actuate something at its other end. For example, when attached to brake hangers and blocks, a pull on one end of the pull rod would transmit a force towards the front of an engine, where it would be attached to further brake hangers and thereby apply the brakes on all wheels at once.