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London & North Western Railway Society
Glossary for the LNWR Society

Glossary Results for prefix "cr"

Crampton, Thomas Russell (1816—1888) Civil and locomotive engineer working in Britain for the GWRExplain 'Great Western Railway (GWR)' (early 1840s) with GoochExplain 'Gooch, Sir Daniel (1816—1889)', and later the LNWRExplain 'London & North Western Railway (LNWR)'. His design trait was a large, single driving wheelExplain 'Drive Wheel' behind the fireboxExplain 'Fire Box', allowing for a low-slung boilerExplain 'Boiler'. After the LNWR, his designs were bought by French, German and Belgian Railways.  
Crane Tank 0-4-2CT Locomotive Class The last three of the 1892 batch of ‘4ft shunters’Explain '4ft Shunter 0-4-0T Locomotive Class' were turned out a 0-4-2 crane tank, and except for the modifications required by the cranes, they were identical to the 0-4-0 saddle tanks. With the short jib they could lift four tons, while the longer jib could only lift three tons. Both size of jib continued in use into LMS days. View more details
Crank Axle The strongest axle is a straight rod. With Inside Cylinder enginesExplain 'Inside Cylinders', the power from the pistonsExplain 'Piston' is transferred to the wheels via cranks in the axle. This considerably weakens the axle.  
Crank Pin The pin fitted to the front of the driving wheelsExplain 'Drive Wheel' of all engines, except inside cylinder single wheelers, which was offset from the centre of the wheel and acted as a pivot for the couplingExplain 'Coupling Rods' and connecting rodsExplain 'Connecting Rod'. This provided the means by which the outside cylinders drove the wheels and by which non-driven wheels were coupled to driven ones.  
Cranks A ‘U’ shaped bend in an axle to change reciprocating movement (i.e. of piston) into rotational movement (i.e. of wheels).  
‘Crested Goods’ Locomotive Class Nickname for 18in GoodsExplain '18in Goods Engine 0-6-0 Locomotive Class' (aka Cauliflower). View more details
Crewe 2-4-0 Goods Locomotive Class A 2-4-0 version of the Crewe Type intended for goods work.  
Crewe Type 2-2-2 Locomotive Class The essential feature of the ‘Crewe Type’ engine was the combination of outside cylindersExplain 'Cylinder' and double framesExplain 'Frame' to overcome the problem of snapped crank-axlesExplain 'Crank Axle' with inside cylindersExplain 'Inside Cylinders'. Built as 2-2-2 for passenger and 2-4-0 for goods purposes  
Crewe Works Started in 1840 under Joseph LockeExplain 'Locke, Joseph (1805—1860)'. At its peak employed 7,000 to 8,000 men and boys. The Works in its time made and repaired not only locomotives, carriages and wagons, but also rails, chairs, keys, points and crossings, signalling equipment, plate layers huts etc etc.  
Cromford & High Peak Railway (CHPR) Incorporated 1825. Opened 1831. Leased to the LNWR by Act of 1862 and vested in it 1887.  
Cross Head The cross head guides the piston rod in and out of the cylinder by sliding between the slide barsExplain 'Slide Bar' and is fixed to the small end of the connecting rodExplain 'Connecting Rod' — part of the mechanism that converts reciprocal movement (i.e. of piston) into rotational movement (i.e. of wheels)  
Crossing Keeper Some level crossings to which the public had access were not block posts, and hence were not under the control of a signalmanExplain 'Signalman'. Crossing keepers were employed at these places to work the gates as directed by the signalmen on either side by means of indicating instruments. HomeExplain 'Home Signal' and distantExplain 'Distant Signal' signals were usually provided to give added protection. Crossing keepers were often disabled or superannuated staff, or their widows, and they were usually allowed to live rent free in an adjacent cottage in exchange for operating the gates. Many manned crossings were replaced by automatic barriers from the 1950s onwards.  
Crossing Keeper’s Cottage A small cottage, usually a bungalow, provided adjacent to a manned level crossingExplain 'Level Crossing' for the use of the resident crossing keeper. These cottages were sometimes known as “lodges”.  
Crossover A pair of rails leading from one line to another to allow movements between the upExplain 'Up line' and down linesExplain 'Down Line' or, on 4-track layout, between slow and fast lines.  
Crown Street, Liverpool At its opening the Liverpool and Manchester RailwayExplain 'Liverpool & Manchester Railway (LMR)' ran from Crown Street, Liverpool to Liverpool Road, Manchester. Carriages were worked between Crown Street and Edge Hill by stationary enginesExplain 'Stationary Engine'; the station was relegated to a repair shop and mineral depot when Lime StreetExplain 'Lime Street, Liverpool' (also worked by stationary engines) was brought into use in 1836.  
Curzon Street The original Birmingham terminus of the Grand Junction RailwayExplain 'Grand Junction Railway (GJR)', from the opening of the line on 4th July 1837; also the Birmingham terminus of the London and Birmingham RailwayExplain 'London & Birmingham Railway (LBR)' from the opening of the final section of the line on 17th September 1838. The station was the terminus for both lines and was replaced by New StreetExplain 'New Street, Birmingham' on 1st June 1854 which, as a through station, allowed trains from London to the north (and vice versa) to proceed without reversing.  
Cut-Off (1) Usually quoted as a percentage, this is the point in a piston stroke at which the supply of steam to the cylinderExplain 'Cylinder' is cut off by the closing of the valvesExplain 'Piston Valve'. Maximum cut-off (typically 75%) is used for starting a train and is reduced as the train accelerates and less effort is required. The amount of cut-off used is controlled by the driver via the screw reverserExplain 'Screw Reverse' or the reversing leverExplain 'Lever Reverse' in later designs. This process is also referred to as ‘notching up’.  
Cut-Off (2) A railway line built to shorten an important route or to avoid particularly busy lines or junctions. LNWR examples were: the Trent Valley line, from Rugby to Stafford, avoiding Birmingham; the Winwick cut-off (1861), which allowed trains between Warrington and the north to avoid the L&M line and Earlestown and Parkside junctions; and the Runcorn line (1869), from Weaver Junction (near Hartford) to Ditton Junction (Widnes), more direct from Crewe to Liverpool than the route via Earlestown.  
Cylinder A hollow cylindrical-shaped device in which the power of a reciprocating engine is developed. In the case of a steam engine, it is here that the power of the steam is converted to mechanical motion.  
Cylinder Cock See Drain CockExplain 'Drain Cock'  
Cylinder Block The piston and valve cylinders on one side of a locomotive are often cast in one piece, incorporating necessary steam ways. The Cylinder bores are then reamed out to the required size.