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South Staffordshire Railway (SSR)
Incorporated 1846. Merged with LNWR in 1867.
Southern Railway (SR)
Not part of LNWR. Formed at the grouping in 1923 from the South Eastern, London, Brighton and South Coast and London and South Western Railways, together with the railways on the Isle of Wight.
SPAD (Signal Passed at Danger)
This is a modern term. One would imagine that the LNWR would use the term SACK in relation to a driver doing this!
In 1998 over 630 signals were passed at danger. The vast majority were passed by a few metres and stopped in the overlap. Most were caused by slippery rail conditions affecting braking. Some were caused by signals changing to red a short time before the train approached it because the signal had failed. Signals, like most railway equipment, are designed to fail-safeExplain 'Fail-safe', and will display a red aspect if they fail. A few, however, were due to drivers failing to observe the red signal.
Spark Arrester
Apparatus placed in the Smoke boxExplain 'Smoke Box' to reduce burning bits of soot (sparks) from escaping from the chimney, thus (hopefully) reducing line-side fires. Also used in Docks.
Special ‘DX’ 0-6-0 Locomotive Class
In April 1881 Mr. WebbExplain 'Webb, Francis William (1836—1906)' rebuilt ‘DX’Explain '‘DX’ 0-6-0 Locomotive Class' No.460 with a new 140 psiExplain 'PSI (Pounds per Square Inch)' boiler of the same kind fitted to the ‘17in Coal Engines’Explain '17in Coal Engine 0-6-0 Locomotive Class'. No definite information on the origin of the term ‘Special’ seems to be available, but was perhaps only used once the engines were vacuum-fittedExplain 'Vacuum Brake' to denote those specially fitted to work Passenger trains. View more details
Special Link
DriversExplain 'Driver' and FiremenExplain 'Fireman' usually worked with several men (often 12 or more) rotating round a duty cycle called a ‘link’. A Special Link had no regular train but were called out at short notice to take any job that turned up unexpectedly.
Special Tank 0-6-0T Locomotive Class
This was Ramsbottom’sExplain 'Ramsbottom, John (1814—1897)' last design, which was in effect a saddle TankExplain 'Saddle Tank' version of the ‘DX’ for shuntingExplain 'Shunting', with the same cylindersExplain 'Cylinder' and wheelbaseExplain 'Wheel Base' but slightly smaller wheels and boilerExplain 'Boiler'. Two of the class were modified with rectangular saddle tanks and condensing apparatusExplain 'Condensing Apparatus' for use in Wapping tunnel, Liverpool. From 1895 they were used on the American SpecialExplain 'American Special (1)' boat trains through Waterloo and Victoria tunnels between Edge HillExplain 'Edge Hill, Liverpool' and RiversideExplain 'Riverside, Liverpool', Liverpool, for this duty they were painted in fully lined livery, and named “EUSTON” and “LIVERPOOL” View more details
Special Train
Any train which does not appear in the working timetableExplain 'Working Time Table (WTT)' and so special notice needs to be given to stations and signal boxes along its route when it runs. Such trains might be arranged in response to demands which could not be foreseen in advance (e.g. special trains to Wembley for the FA Cup Final) or which were only occasional (e.g. the “banana specials” from Garston).
Spectacle Plate
A form of weather boardExplain 'Weather Board' with two large “Port-Hole” style windows (hence the name) which offered the crew a little more protection, while being able to see the road ahead.
Spencer’s buffers
Type of patented dual-action (two stage compression) buffer used on LNWR passenger carriages built from 1916 onwards, and later adopted as standard by the LMS.
Splasher
A protrusion on the top of a locomotive running-plateExplain 'Running Plate' which covers the tops of one or more coupled wheels.
Sprag
A stout stick or bar inserted between the spokes of a wheel to act as a parking brake.
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