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Hackworth, Timothy (1786—1850)
Locomotive pioneer, born at Wylam, Northumberland; in charge of the Stockton & Darlington RailwayExplain 'Stockton & Darlington Railway (SDR)' locomotives and machinery from 1825. He built the 0-4-0 ‘Sans Pareil’ in 1829 for the Rainhill TrialsExplain 'Rainhill Trials'; this engine subsequently worked on the Bolton & Leigh RailwayExplain 'Bolton & Leigh Railway' until 1844 and is now in the Science Museum, London, with its competitor, Stephenson’s ‘Rocket’. His last locomotive, a 2-2-2 also named ‘Sans Pareil’ was of a very advanced design, with a partly welded boiler. It ran on the LNWR in 1849, but was returned and worked successfully on the North Eastern RailwayExplain 'North Eastern Railway (NER)' until 1881. “Hackworth has an assured place in railway history as the first to establish the steam locomotive as a thoroughly reliable machine” (John MarshallExplain 'Marshall, John').
Half Cab
The foot plate crew are offered a little protection from the elements from a cover that is in front of them and half a roof. Contrast with full cabExplain 'Full Cab'.
Hammer Blow
The reciprocating parts (connecting rodsExplain 'Connecting Rod' etc.) of a locomotive which are partially balanced by weights attached to the rims of the driving wheels deliver a hammer blow to the track at each revolution which can greatly exceed the static axle loadExplain 'Axle Load'. This increases with the speed, and is especially damaging to bridges. Hence it may account for speed restrictions on certain lines. A three- or four-cylinder locomotive (such as a ‘Claughton’Explain 'Claughton 4-6-0 Locomotive Class' 4-6-0) is much better balanced than a two-cylinder one, with consequent reduction in the hammer blow.
Hampstead Junction Railway
Authorised in 1853 with support from the LNWR and NLRExplain 'North London Railway (NLR)' to provide an alternative connection between their systems by linking Willesden with Kentish Town. The HJR was opened on 2nd January 1860.
Hand Brake
Nowadays synonymous with the term parking brake but originally a vehicle brake applied by hand action to a wheel or lever on the vehicle.
Hand Rail
A rod fixed to posts for people grip for support. Of particular interest is the hand rail that runs the length of the boiler, which often doubled up as a control leaver for equipment in or on the smoke boxExplain 'Smoke Box'. One such example is the the control of the Super Heater DampersExplain 'Super Heater Dampers'.
Harrison Alarm
The first form of train alarm apparatus was the “Harrison cord system” adopted in 1869, which involved a cord running along the top of the carriages threaded through rings and supported by pulleys. When pulled it range a bell in the Guard’s van and sounded a whistle on the locomotive. Not very effective. View more details
Haystack Firebox
Nickname given to the type of firebox favoured by Edward BuryExplain 'Bury, Edward (1794—1858)' until about 1847; the entire top of the outer box was a large hemisphere, covered by copper sheeting; this prominent object bore some resemblance to the haystacks then commonplace around farmyards. The shape provided strength without stays, or with only a few. The large steam space helped to prevent priming (water getting into the cylinders) and allowed for the collection of dry steam from a position well above the water-level.
Head Shunt
A length of track allowing shuntingExplain 'Shunting' movements to be made within a group of sidingsExplain 'Siding' without foulingExplain 'Fouling' the running linesExplain 'Running Lines', to which it may have a connection. If there were no head shunt, the shunting engine would have to pull on to the main line to move wagons from one siding to another.
Headstock
A large piece of timber or steel spanning the width of a railway vehicle (Carriage or Wagon), to which the buffersExplain 'Buffer' and draw gearExplain 'Draw Gear' are attached. Called a Buffer BeamExplain 'Buffer Beam' on locomotive.
Hedley, William (1779—1843)
Pioneer of steam engines and introduced locomotives that did not require a rack and pinion system to operate, that adhesion was simply enough. His locomotives Wylam Dilly and Puffing Billy, built in 1813 and 1814 respectively, are preserved.
F.C. Hibberd & Co Ltd
A locomotive building company in London.
Highland Railway
The Highland main line, almost entirely single track, ran from Stanley Junction (on the Caledonian north of Perth) to Inverness and then to Wick, with a branch to Kyle of Lochalsh (for Skye). Not a part of the LNWR but an associate in through services from Euston (keeping their options open, also from Kings Cross). The line was immensely important during the First World War in supplying coal to the Grand Fleet, based at Scapa Flow in the Orkneys. The Highland was grouped into the LMS in 1923.
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