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Coaching Stock
Vehicles intended for use in passenger-rated trains, including not just passenger carriages but also similar vehicles intended for use in passenger-rated trains, including passenger brake vansExplain 'Brake Van', parcels vansExplain 'Parcels Van', TPOsExplain 'TPO – Travelling Post Office' and the like fitted with continuous brakesExplain 'Continuous Breaks'. HorseboxesExplain 'Horsebox' and carriage trucksExplain 'Carriage Truck' were also coaching stock vehicles.
Coal Engine 0-6-0 Locomotive Class
In February 1873 Mr. WebbExplain 'Webb, Francis William (1836—1906)' introduced the famous 17in Coal Engines, the first new engine he was entirely responsible.
The design was based on that of the ‘Special Tanks’ and at first used the same boilerExplain 'Boiler' up rated to 140 psiExplain 'PSI (Pounds per Square Inch)'; later the whole class had boilers with larger fireboxesExplain 'Fire Box'. The first batch had Ramsbottom safety valvesExplain 'Ramsbottom Safety-Valve' but Webb chimney, cab, coupling rodsExplain 'Coupling Rods' and cast-iron wheels. The horizontal smoke boxExplain 'Smoke Box' door, wooden buffer beamExplain 'Buffer Beam' and brake blocksExplain 'Brake Blocks', absence of brakes on the engine and the style of the 1,500 gallon tenderExplain 'Tender' with grease axle boxesExplain 'Axle-box' all date from the earliest Crewe designsExplain 'Crewe Type 2-2-2 Locomotive Class', well before RamsbottomExplain 'Ramsbottom, John (1814—1897)'. View more details
Coal Gas Lighting
Coal gas was ordinary town gas, often produced by the railway company itself, and was widely used in railway buildings for illumination from about 1880 and remained in use in some locations for very many years, well into the BR era. Attempts to use coal gas for carriage lighting were not successful due to the low calorific value compared with oil gasExplain 'Oil Gas Lighting'.
Coal Saddle Tank 0-6-0T Locomotive Class
In 1904—5 45 ‘17in Coal Engines’Explain '17in Coal Engine 0-6-0 Locomotive Class' were converted into tank enginesExplain 'Tank Locomotive' for shuntingExplain 'Shunting'. Because of the box-like water tanks, they were known as the ‘square saddle tanks’
Coal Tank 0-6-2T Locomotive Class
0-6-2T tank engineExplain 'Tank Locomotive' version of the Webb 17in Coal EnginesExplain '17in Coal Engine 0-6-0 Locomotive Class', first introduced in 1881. Although intended originally for goods and shunting duties, in fact they proved very suitable for local passenger train work. Their braking power was inadequate and this further encouraged their use on passenger rather than goods traffic. View more details
Coal Trimmer
A coal trimmer would be responsible for ensuring that after a loco’s tender was loaded it was not overhanging the tender sides or in too large pieces to be used by the fireman when underway.
‘My father remembers the large coal provided at Camden from LMS days they were known as ‘Camden gravestones’ because of their size!.” [Mike Rigg]
Coaling Stage
Structure provided at engine shedsExplain 'Shed' (and occasionally elsewhere) to enable coal to be shovelled manually from wagons into small “tubs” and thence tipped into locomotive tenders or bunkers. Except at the largest sheds, where some form of mechanical coaling was often adopted, LNWR coaling stages were of a standard design (in different sizes), and incorporated a large water tank on top.
Cockermouth & Workington Railway (CWR)
A small line promoted by locals, it was built to serve the collieries of the Derwent Valley, allowing coal to be Workington docks for onward transmission. Created by an Act of 21st July 1845, it was opened to traffic on 28th July 1847.
Passenger services were operated between Cockermouth and Workington; the station at the latter place was jointly managed between the two companies. In 1866 it was amalgamated into the LNWR, and its own set of rolling stock incorporated into the stock of the LNWR.
Cockermouth, Keswick & Penrith Railway (CK&PR)
An independent railway, promoted by interests in the LNWR and the North Eastern RailwayExplain 'North Eastern Railway (NER)', it ran through the heart of the Lake District from Penrith to Cockermouth via Keswick. Its Act was obtained on 1st August 1861 and the line was opened on 2nd January 1865. It possessed no stock of its own, and was operated with stock of both the NER and LNWR. The line was closed on 6th March 1972 to a great deal of local dismay, though plans are afoot to provide a line, using most of the original track bed.
Combination lever
A rod on Walschaerts valve-gearExplain 'Walschaerts valve-gear' joining the radius rodExplain 'Radius Rod', valve rodExplain 'Valve Rod' and union linkExplain 'Union Link'.
Combustion Chamber
When discussing railway locomotives, this refers to an area within the boiler where gases are burnt, or combusted. This normally takes place inside the fireboxExplain 'Fire Box'. Some LNWR Locomotives (e.g. the Greater BritainExplain 'Greater Britain 2-2-2-2 Locomotive Class' and John HickExplain 'John Hick 2-2-2-2 Locomotive Class' classes) had an additional combustion chamber part-way along the boiler which was intended to re-ignite unburnt matter, thereby releasing additional energy and reducing smoke. In reality it is unlikely that re-ignition actually occurred and it necessitated having four troublesome tube platesExplain 'Tube Plate' in each boiler instead of the normal two.
Common User Wagon

A common user wagon was pooled between the railway companies (from about 1915) and thus could be loaded from any place of origin to any destination. When a 'common user' wagon was travelled onto another company's rails they were permitted to retain the 'foreign' wagon and use it for appropriate loads as required. This greatly reduced empty and unproductive mileage. Non-common user wagons (including all vacuum-fitted stock, those with sheet support rails and specialised vehicles such as meat, fish and refrigerator vans, and other vehicles for special traffics) had to be returned empty to the owning company. The scope of the pool broadened after the 1923 grouping. From 1927 the LMS, LNER and SR pooled their cattle wagons in the scheme, but the GWR did not.

The pooling of railway company stock was such an evident success that a common user pool was also established in the 1920s for private owner vehiclesExplain 'Private Owner Wagon'. This lasted until the outbreak of war in 1939, when all PO wagons were requisitioned by the Government.

Railway company owned tarpaulin sheets were brought into the Common User scheme in about 1917.

Communication Cord
A cord or chain running through each carriage in a train, which enabled the passenger to communicate alarm to the driver.
Seating area in a carriage separated off from other passengers by partitions. In a corridor coach, the compartment only occupies part of the width of the coach and has a door leading from it into the corridor.
Compartment Coach
Carriage with seating arranged in compartments. (cf. Open coachExplain 'Open Coach').
Carriage with seating for passengers of different classesExplain 'Passenger Class'.
Compound (1)
A compound locomotive, either a three-cylinder or a four-cylinder compound. See CompoundingExplain 'Compounding'.
Compound (2)
A slip pointExplain 'Slip Point', either a single compound (single slip) or double compound (double slip).
An arrangement whereby, in the interests of economy, steam from the boiler is used twice, by feeding the exhaust steam from high-pressure cylinders into one or more low-pressure cylinders, of larger diameter. See 3-Cylinder CompoundsExplain 'Three-cylinder compound', Webb CompoundsExplain 'Webb Compound' and Triple ExpansionExplain 'Triple Expansion'.
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